Baraan nga Imperyo Romano

An Baraan nga Imperyo Romano amo an nagkaurusa nga teritoryo ha butnga Europa ha butnga nga panahon ngan Uruunhan nga kabag-ohan nga panahon ha ilarom han baraan nga imperador romano.

Holy Roman Empire
Sacrum Romanum Imperium


Imperial Banner Quaternion Eagle
(none official)
"Gott erhalte Franz den Kaiser" (Imperial anthem, 1797)
"God Save Emperor Francis"
Location of Holy Roman Empire
The Holy Roman Empire around 1600, superimposed over current state borders
Capital no official capital; imperial seat cities varied throughout history
e.g. Vienna
(Continuous Imperial Residenz City, 1483–1806)
(Eternal Diet, 1663–1806)
(1346–1437, 1583–1611)
Languages German, Latin, Italian, Czech, Polish, Dutch, French, Frisian, Slovene, Sorbian and others
Religion Roman Catholicism; Lutheranism (officially recognized since the Peace of Augsburg 1555) and Calvinism (officially recognized since the Peace of Westphalia 1648)
Government Elective monarchy
 -  962–973 Otto I (first)
 -  1792–1806 Francis II (last)
Legislature Imperial Diet
Historical era Middle Ages
Early modern period
 -  Otto I is crowned Emperor of the Romans 2 February 962
 -  Conrad II assumes
    crown of Burgundy
2 February 1033
 -  Peace of Augsburg 25 September 1555
 -  Peace of Westphalia 24 October 1648
 -  Battle of Austerlitz 2 December 1805
 -  Francis II abdicated 6 August 1806
 -  1200 est. 5,000,000[1] 
 -  1500 est. 16,000,000[2][3] 
 -  1618 est. 21,000,000[4] 
 -  1648 est. 16,000,000[4] 
 -  1786 est. 26,265,000[5] 
Preceded by
Succeeded by
Middle Francia
East Francia
Confederation of the Rhine
Austrian Empire
Kingdom of Prussia
Kingdom of Saxony
Duchy of Holstein
Duchy of Oldenburg
Free and Hanseatic City of Hamburg
Principality of Reuss-Greiz
Duchy of Mecklenburg-Schwerin
Swedish Pomerania
Electorate of Hesse
Principality of Nassau-Orange-Fulda
Principality of Waldeck
Duchy of Saxe-Weimar
Duchy of Saxe-Gotha-Altenburg
Today part of  Austria
 Czech Republic

Dugang nga barasahon

  • Arnold, Benjamin, Princes and Territories in Medieval Germany. (Cambridge University Press, 1991)
  • Bryce, James, The Holy Roman Empire. 1899 edition.
  • Coy, Jason Phillip et al. The Holy Roman Empire, Reconsidered, (Berghahn Books, 2010).
  • Evans, R. J. W., Michael Schaich and Peter H. Wilson, eds. The Holy Roman Empire 1495–1806 (2011) articles by scholars
  • Donaldson, George. Germany: A Complete History (Gotham Books, New York, 1985).
  • Heer, Friedrich. Holy Roman Empire (2002).
  • Hoyt, Robert S. and Chodorow, Stanley, Europe in the Middle Ages (New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, Inc., 1976).
  • Scribner, Bob. Germany: A New Social and Economic History, Vol. 1: 1450–1630 (1995).
  • Whaley, Joachim. Germany and the Holy Roman Empire, Volumes 1 and 2, (Oxford UP, 2012).
  • Wilson, Peter H. The Holy Roman Empire 1495–1806 (2011) excerpt and text search.
  • Zophy, Jonathan W. ed., The Holy Roman Empire: A Dictionary Handbook. Greenwood Press, 1980.


  • Heinz Angermeier, Das Alte Reich in der deutschen Geschichte. Studien über Kontinuitäten und Zäsuren, München 1991
  • Karl Otmar Freiherr von Aretin, Das Alte Reich 1648–1806. 4 vols. Stuttgart, 1993–2000
  • Peter Claus Hartmann, Kulturgeschichte des Heiligen Römischen Reiches 1648 bis 1806. Wien, 2001
  • Georg Schmidt, Geschichte des Alten Reiches. München, 1999
  • Deutsche Reichstagsakten Ginhipos 2013-04-08 han Wayback Machine

Mga sumpay ha gawas


Mga mapa

  1. "Atlas of Europe in the Middle Ages", Ostrovski, Rome, 1998, page 70
  2. Holy Roman Empire - 1500 - The German Empire
  3. Reich und Glaubensspaltung, Deutschland 1500-1600 by Horst Rabe, p.27
  4. 4.0 4.1 Introduction to Global Politics by Richard W. Mansbach,Kirsten L. Taylor
  5. Nation und Nationalismus in Deutschland, 1770-1990 by Otto Dann